Muscle Balance References
Sahrmann, S. A. and Norton, B. J. (1977), The relationship of voluntary movement of spasticity in the upper motor neuron syndrome. Ann Neurol., 2: 460–465. doi: 10.1002/ana.410020604 11977: Passive movement elicited tonic reflexes, which predominated during muscle stretch in patients and during muscle shortening in the volunteers. Ratios of the EMG activity elicited during stretch, shortening, and isometric activity were used as measures of spasticity and were compared with the time for RRM. A positive correlation between elbow flexor spasticity and the time for RRM was shown. Qualitative analysis of the EMG activity during voluntary isotonic movement, however, showed that primary impairment of movement is not due to antagonist stretch reflexes, but rather to limited and prolonged recruitment of agonist contraction and delayed cessation of agonist contraction at the termination of movement.
Gossman, Shirley A Sahrmann and Steven J Rose. (1982), Review of Length-Associated Changes in Muscle: Experimental Evidence and Clinical Implications. Phys Ther., 62:1799-1808. 21982: Movement dysfunction that may be caused by length-associated changes in muscle is a problem of people treated by physical therapists. The purpose of this article is to review the literature related to length-associated changes in muscle. An analysis of length-associated changes in animal and human studies is presented. The methods used to produce the changes in animals are discussed, and the clinical implications of the length-associated changes in muscle are suggested.
Vicki Stemmons Mercer, Shirley A. Sahrmann, Virginia Diggles-buckles, Richard A. Abrams, Barbara J. Norton. Age Group Differences in Postural Adjustments Associated With a Stepping Task. (1997), Journal of Motor Behavior, Vol. 29, Iss. 3. 31997: In this study, differences among age groups in the postural adjustments associated with a stepping task were identified. Twenty subjects from each of 3 age groups, children (8–12 years), young adults (25–35 years), and older adults (65–73 years), performed the task in 2 movement contexts: place and step. Inplace, the subject simply lifted the foot and placed it on the step. In step, the subject lifted the foot, placed it on the step, and stepped up onto the step. Latencies of postural and focal muscle activation were determined by using surface electromyography and pressure switches. Center of pressure (CP) data were obtained by using a force platform. Subjects in all 3 age groups consistently demonstrated postural adjustments before movement initiation. Children displayed longer postural latencies than young adults as well as disproportionately large values for CP path length. Older adults showed prolonged postural-focal latencies and decreased CP excursions…
Aubin CE, Labelle H, Ruszkowski A, et al. 1999. Variability of strap tension in brace treatment for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Spine. 24(4): 349-354. [Abstract: A mechanical evaluation of brace strap tensions to document their variability in different patient positions and to assess their biomechanical effectiveness.] 4 OBJECTIVES: To measure the strap tensions at which adolescents with scoliosis are wearing their braces and to determine the variations in strap tension in different patient positions.
SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA:
The biomechanical action of thoracolumbosacral orthoses is still not well understood, and there is no standardized strap tension at which the brace should be fastened to obtain optimal results. METHODS: This study was conducted in 34 adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis wearing thoracolumbosacral orthoses. Brace straps were instrumented with load cells and tightened at four tensions (the ones prescribed by their treating physician and three standardized values: 20, 40, and 60 N). In each case, the tension was recorded while the patients assumed nine positions corresponding to normal daily tasks. The variability of strap tension was evaluated by comparing the changes from the original standing position. RESULTS: The prescribed tensions measured in thoracic and pelvic straps were markedly variable. The greatest changes in tension occurred when the patients were lying down. Relaxation of strap tension was found when the patients returned to the standing position after having completed the tasks. CONCLUSIONS: If strap tension affects the biomechanical actions of the brace, these results indicate that regular brace strap tension adjustments are needed and raise questions about the efficacy of nighttime bracing to correct spinal deformities.
Beynnon BD, Good L, Risberg MA. (2002) The effect of bracing on proprioception of knees with anterior cruciate ligament injury . J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 32(1):11-15. 5[Abstract: After ACL injury, application of an elastic bandage or neoprene sleeve improved joint position sense and showed no effect on recovery of position sense after 2 years of wear.]
Blair, E., J. Ballantyne, S. Horsman, P. Chauvel (1995) A study of a dynamic proximal stability splint in the management of children with cerebral palsy. Dev Med Child Neurol 37:544-554. 6[The Upsuit is a custom-made, Lycra trunk suit. Significant effect on postural stability and UE movement, and carry-over noted. Advocated particularly for athetoid and dystonic subjects. Limit wear to 6 hours/day to avoid dependence on it.]
Bravard S, Diehl D, Hogan A, Moeding J, Wallace M. (1997) The effectiveness of inhibitory taping of the upper trapezius muscle during a functional reach as determined by electromyography . Phys Ther 77(5): s-29. 7[Abstract: Authors found reduced EMG output for both shoulder shrug and shoulder forward flexion in all 37 PT student subjects.]
Hylton N, Allen C. (1997) The development and use of SPIO Lycra compression bracing in children with neuromotor deficits. Pediatr Rehabil. 1(2): 109-116. 8[Stabilizing Pressure Input Orthosis, developed by a parent, Cheryl Allen and Nancy Hylton,PT, is a development off the BENIK trunk supports, using lighter and cooler layers of Lycra. Spio reportedly evolved in parallel with the Australian, Ballantyne’s Upsuit. Review article with photos of cases and suggested protocols, in combination with “DAFOs”. ]
Johnson MP, McClure PW, Karduna AR. (2001) New method to assess scapular upward rotation in subjects with shoulder pathology. J Orthop SportsPhys Ther 31(2):81-89. 9[Authors used a modified digital inclinometer, and found good to excellent validity.]
Marcus RL, Sands WA, Nicholson DE. (2001) The effects of compression garments on movement function in motor impaired children. Poster presentation – Gait and Clinical Movement Analysis Society – Annual Meeting, Sacramento, CA. April. 10[Abstract: Author investigated claims made by Blair et al (1995) and Hylton et al (1997) by using gait analysis to detect effects of wearing compression garments on kinematics and kinetics of gait and of single limb stance phase. No significant effect was reported. So I invited Robin to consider repeating the study using elasticized strapping in addition to compression garments to alter gait kinematics.]
Morin L, Bravo G. (1997) Strapping the hemiplegic shoulder: a radiographic evaluation of its efficacy to reduce subluxation. Physiotherapy Canada Spring: 103-112. 11[Authors compared typical sling with elastic adhesive taping for 15 patients with shoulder subluxation, 5 days each, and then combined them. The two supports combined were most effective.]
Nicholson JH, Morton RE, Attfield S, Rennie D. (2001) Assessment of upper limb function and movement in children with cerebral palsy wearing lycra garments. Dev Med Child Neurol. 43: 384-391. 12[Abstract: Functional gains from increased proximal stability were often outweighed by inconvenience of donning and doffing and loss of independence.]
Paleg G. (1997) Improving function with dynamic trunk splints. Advance for Phys Ther 8(48):34. December 1 issue. 13[Author describes Second Skin’s “Upsuit” and BENIK’s neoprene splint.]
Snijders CJ, Hermans PF, Niesing R, Spoor CW, Stoeckart R. 2004. The influence of slouching and lumbar support on iliolumbar ligaments, intervertebral discs and sacroiliac joints. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 19(4): 323-329. 14[CONCLUSIONS: Backward rotation of the pelvis combined with flexion of the spine, i.e. slouching, results in backward rotation of the sacrum with respect to the ilium, dorsal widening of the intervertebral disc L5-S1 and strain on the iliolumbar ligaments when protection from back muscles against lumbar flexion is absent. Lumbar backrest support almost eliminates lumbosacral and sacroiliac movement.
RELEVANCE: Understanding why the iliolumbar ligaments are loaded in slouching contributes to the understanding of the biomechanics of low back pain in everyday situations with small or negligible compressive spinal load. The results recommend lumbar support: backrests with free shoulder space.]
Wang S, Hughes K, Olsen S, Hanten W. (1997) The effect of the McConnell shoulder taping technique in normal subjects: an electromyographic study. Phys Ther. 77(5): S-41. 15[Abstract: 29 subjects with no pathology, mean age 28. Taping was used to reposition the humeral head (?). Authors detected no changes in EMG output with and without taping, and considered that the lack of pathology might be a factor. Perhaps the taping technique is another factor?]